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2017.03.07yf12 "一" excludes plural. (?). This is the Question
Да. "一" значит только один студент, т.е. единственное число. Поэтому я не понимаю, почему это "отдельные студенты".

Мой добавочный вопрос: (Ветер, Oleg2)
на экзамене один из студентов/некоторые из студентов списывал/списывали
Почему "списывал/списывали", а не "списал/списали"?
2017.03.07
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Адов, это для общего развития. Если "один", то так и пишется
"На этом экзамене один из студентов списывал"
2017.03.07
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Адов, The imperfective aspect is used to denote the general act of cheating.
Вася списывает на каждом экзамене. (He cheats at every exam)
Васю выгнали с экзамена, потому что он списывал. (He was cheating/trying to cheat)

The perfective aspect is not impossible, but would generally involve using more extended wording and describe some particular situation:

Вася списал ответ со шпаргалки. (He managed to copy the answer)
На экзамене только один студент списал ответ задачи у товарища.
Я не помнил формулу, но мне удалось списать ее из учебника.

Simply saying "Только один студент списал" sounds somehow incomplete, leaving one wondering what the student in question did actually copy and whence. Though it is not altogether impossible. A teacher may tell his colleague: "В этот раз все написали сочинение самостоятельно. Только один студент списал".

It also implies that the student actually got away with the cheating, since perfective aspect suggests that the act in question was successfully finished.
2017.03.07
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2017.03.07r1 Адов, The imperfective aspect is used to denote the general act of cheating.....
I thought that the action is a specific one-time action, i.e. the cheating happened at the time of a certain exam, short and completed ... so used the perfective aspect. (imperfective aspect would mean it is repetitive or continuous.) It is now that I know Russians think otherwise ...
Well, I still have to make more mistakes like this before completely grasping the rule.
2017.03.07
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Адов, Ответил в личные сообщения.

(Ответ был на вопрос в личке, это если кому интересно Smile

А ход мысли такой: если он уже завершил списывание, т.е. "списал", то как его поймали? Wink Скорее всего, взяли с поличным в процессе списывания, т.е. когда "списывал" Smile

ЗЫ Да, знаю, это не грамматическое объяснение Big Grin
2017.03.07
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Действительно я захватил пост 从同呼-а
I actually hijacked 从同呼's post. 14
2017.03.07
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Адов,
Цитата:Well, I still have to make more mistakes like this before completely grasping the rule
I am afraid there is no actual rule here. Only some intuitive feeling which is extremely hard to put down in words.
It's more along the lines of "we would say it that way"/"we don't say it that way". We all three of us (I, Oleg2 and Ветер) are native speakers, we all would definetely use the imperfective, but it's rather hard to nail down the exact "why".

Цитата:I thought that the action is a specific one-time action, i.e. the cheating happened at the time of a certain exam, short and completed ... so used the perfective aspect.
As Oleg2 mentioned it, since someone is caught in the act of cheating, the act can not be completed. And if he is not caught, how anyone would know if it's taken place?

Вася списывал на экзамене, но его поймали. (He was trying to cheat, but was not successful in that. The act was not completed)

Вася попытался списать на экзамене, но его поймали/ Вася пытался списывать на экзамене, но его поймали (Here both aspects sound natural, though the action was not completed. Still I sense a subtle difference (maybe it's just me): the perfective has the sound of "He was trying to copy something from somewhere" (i.e. a narrower, more definite case), the imperfective simply describes his unlawful conduct "He was trying to cheat". Once again, I am not sure that it's not just me)

Вася списывал на экзамене, но преподаватель не заметил этого. (He was cheating at the exam, but the teacher hadn't caught him. We do not know how the cheating influenced his marks, whether it helped him or not.)
На экзамене Вася списал ответ из учебника. (He was successful in copying the answer from the book - a more definite case of cheating. Whether he was successful in his cheating or not, he had still finished the act of copying the answer. He wasn't caught by the hand in the process but may have been discovered afterwards)

Вася не знает математики, он получил "отлично", потому что списал на экзамене. (He managed to cheat successfully, that's how he got his A grade, though he doesn't know anything about Maths. Here we see the result of his successful cheating)

I am not even sure that the other native speakers would 100% agree with me. The last sentence, for instance, sounds perfectly natural with both aspects, though I would use perfective in that case.

Цитата:Да. "一" значит только один студент, т.е. единственное число. Поэтому я не понимаю, почему это "отдельные студенты".
有一个别考生
Actually I thought at first it was plural, too. We are used to "numeral+classifier+adjective+noun" structure, here the classifier is omitted (it is omitted, right?) So the "一" doesn't look like a numeral, since it has got no classifier. To me, at least 1
2017.03.08
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2017.03.07Адов Да. "一" значит только один студент, т.е. единственное число. Поэтому я не понимаю, почему это "отдельные студенты".

Мой добавочный вопрос: (Ветер, Oleg2)
на экзамене один из студентов/некоторые из студентов списывал/списывали
Почему "списывал/списывали", а не "списал/списали"?

По той же причине, по которой в китайском предложении не говорится 作了弊 , а так можно и "списал" поставить, но мы то от китайского оригинала отталкиваемся. 作弊 действие в общем, оно в русском выражается через "списывал", общее прошедшее время, без совершенного вида
2017.03.08
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2017.03.08r1 As Oleg2 mentioned it, since someone is caught in the act of cheating, the act can not be completed. And if he is not caught, how anyone would know if it's taken place?
His(or Her) act of copying may have finished and was discovered later, e.g. he finished copying and carelessly left a paper in the drawer and the teacher found it. Or the teacher saw unusually good answers from a weak student and checked the student's knowledge or checked the CCTV.

The Chinese 有一个别考生作弊 does not indicate anything about whether it was caught in the act or discovered afterwards. But it must have happened in a certain place, at a certain time; whether the copying is finished or not, whether it helped the results or not, it happened. For me (and perhaps some others too), it is so hard to predict it is just "a general action of cheating" and is imperfective.

2017.03.08r1 有一个别考生
Actually I thought at first it was plural, too. We are used to "numeral+classifier+adjective+noun" structure, here the classifier is omitted (it is omitted, right?) So the "一" doesn't look like a numeral, since it has got no classifier. To me, at least  1
Yes, the classifier (量詞) is omitted. It must mean just one student.
个别 has the connotation that it is an exceptional case (it does not represent all other students). Один из студентов will be a plain translation which we have to settle for if no better choice is available.
2017.03.08
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лично я бы исходила из наличия в исходном предложении ошибки/опечатки. "一个别N" не является нормальным для китайского языка, ну если только N не равно 别字 разве что.
2017.03.08
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